Saturday, May 23, 2020
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
When approaching which event to select for the requirement, it seemed it could not have been better timing for The Black Panthers: Vanguard Of The Revolution documentary to air. It had been in the same week, debates and circling campus and social media regarding the halftime show with the performance by Beyonce with dancers that resembles the female members of the Black Panther Party. The performance was also a reference towards the fact that it was Black History Month along the recent #Black Lives Matter movement which is still in progress concerning police brutality and systematic racism. By looking at the performance, I did not think anything more of it than being a performance; however on social media, many did not appreciate the performance and labelling the inclusion of the black panthers as reverse racism. People presented the point that the black panther party could be equated to the Ku Klux Klan, due to my own ignorance, I felt compelled to agree. Being multiracial and growi ng up in mainly white spaces, I was not exactly educated on the political party or their accomplishments, I was informed that it was an anti white party. Luckily, the RiverRun Film Festival that would provide me with the impression necessary about the party, so with that came a feeling of excitement.Although there were not many multiracial people in the room, I was not offended or uncomfortable since my motive was to attain knowledge rather than a sense of belonging. The interviews and factualShow MoreRelatedShirley Chisholm : The First African American Woman1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesworst, ChisholmÃ¢â¬â¢s parent sent her and her sisters back home to Barbados to stay with their grandmother. Chisholm received a more rigorous education in Barbados than the public schools in Brooklyn, focusing intensely on reading and writing. Having black teachers allowed Chisholm to view people of color as competent and professionally successful, which she may not have experienced in Brooklyn. Chisholm gained a strong sense of self and pride while living in Barbados, mainly from her grandmother andRead MoreThe Rhetorical Analysis Of Mary Crow Dog And Graduation By Maya Angelou1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheir effectiveness as a rhetor. Crow Dog gives the argument that Ã¢â¬Å"racism breeds racism in reverseÃ¢â¬ (79); when we do not look at people as people, it gives us an excuse to treat them badly. The author explains that they are like animals and savages; the Indians being the animals, and the nuns and priests being the savages. Her argument is effective because it still applies in society today. The rhetorÃ¢â¬â¢s essay is kairotic because racism has always been a pressing issue and when Crow Dog went to St. FrancisRead More Cults Essay1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescommonly known cults are Reverend Jim Jones and the People Temple, Heavens Gate, and Charles Manson and the Family. In the early 20th century, Allistar Crowly, AKA Ã¢â¬Å"The Black PopeÃ¢â¬ , started modern Satanism. It is said that Anton Lavey brought Satanism to the United States. Anton believed that he was the reincarnation of the Ã¢â¬Å"Black PopeÃ¢â¬ . He set his church up in San Francisco in 1966. Within one year AntonÃ¢â¬â¢s cult grew to more than 200,000 members (Miller, 1991, p. 28-29). Anton then went to HollywoodRead MoreSocial And Cultural Diversity : Beyond Racism3572 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesRunning head: SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY ? BEYOND RACISM 1 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY ? BEYOND RACISM 11 Social and Cultural Diversity ? Beyond Racism Thomas J. McCarthy Grand Canyon University: PCN-509 August 31, 2016 Social and Cultural Diversity ? Beyond Racism The title Beyond Racism was chosen because that is where I wish the world will be some day. Where everyone doesn?t see differences of one?s melanin or culture or status in life, but sees the likenessRead More The Origin of the Civil Rights Movement Essay1820 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesadvancement of African Americans. As W.E.B. Du Bois provided the diving board that would allow blacks to dive into the pool of equality, he is found at the origin of the Civil Rights Movement. The Pan-Africanism movement, the rage following the Red Summer, and the Great Migration continued the efforts of W.E.B. Du Bois. The bold and striking words and actions of Marcus Garvey showed whites that blacks would not be called an inferior race any longer. Following World War II, many bounds toward racialRead MoreDoomed : Repeat The Past2605 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesAndrea Acosta Mrs. Hart Creative Writing 16 September 2014 Doomed to Repeat the Past - Racism is the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races. It is the systematic oppression of people who did not set up the system of oppression (i.e. white people vs. every other POC). This system is not just institutionalized but embedded into every fabric of society fromRead MoreThe Fall of the Liberal Consensus Essay1919 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe civil rights movement took form in the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, otherwise known as the Black Panther Party. Stokely Carmichael marks the feelings of part of America in reaction to the rise of fragmented civil rights groups such as the Black Panthers when he writes, as for white America, perhaps it can stop crying out against Ã¢â¬Ëblack supremacy, Ã¢â¬Ëblack nationalism, Ã¢â¬Ëracism in reverse, and begin facing reality. While we now have an understanding of how the fragmentation of the liberalRead MoreNonviolent Resistance And Nonviolent Action2197 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagessuccess in raising awareness and getting people to adopt their narratives and commit to fighting disparities, as evident by the Civil Rights Act and Brown vs. Board of Education, where enough activism allowed for a change in the course of explicit racism in the US. Next, the methods of Nonviolent Noncooperation utilize the majority to weaken governments and systems and dismantle their authority and power. These methods involve economic boycotts, such as consumer boycotts and rent refusals, strikesRead MoreFor decades, African Americans have been on a racial discrimination and extremely deadly roller2100 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesroller coaster ride for justice and equality. In this new day and age, racial tendencies and prejudice has improved since the 1700-1800s,however, they are slowly going back to certain old ways with voting laws and restaurants having the option to serve blacks or not. It all began with the start of slavery around 1619. The start of the New World, the settlers needed resources England and other countries had, which started the Triangle Trade. The New England settlers manufactured and shipped rum to WestRead MoreOpposing Forces Civil Rights Movement2317 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesfor civil rights had been started long ago, when t he black man was freed from the bonds of slavery. Over a hundred years later, the problem of blacks being treated as second-class citizens still persisted. What could be done to correct the present situation? Some, both blacks and whites, believed that non-violence was the only means to achieve civil rights, as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. preached. Others like Huey Newton of the Black Panthers believed that violence was the only way. (W. H. Chafe:
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
VanishesÃ¢â¬ sees UN Ecuador whiz poor el artists Salvador Feline Action Dali. CosecÃ © Salvador Dali y est. Ecuador porous De com piÃ ±ata. We will write a custom essay sample on Salvador Dali or any similar topic only for you Order Now Us USA el still De surrealist, per us Trojan sees realists. Poor example, en Ã¢â¬Å"The Image Vanishes,Ã¢â¬ Mira realists, per hack UN concept De surrealist. EdemaÃ ¤s, you jocose Dali porous me gusts el rate De Dali. Me gusts us Trojan y rate porous us still surrealist sees Ã'Ënice y creative. TamakiÃ ©n me gusts us rate porous De us ideas y el significant deterÃ ¤s De cad painter. Ho, SE upped encounter e]employ De us rate en SST. Petersburg, Florida; Berlin Germany; Paris, France; Catalina, Spawn. Salvador Feline Action Dali is a Spanish artist that is considered the personification of surrealism. Dali was born in 1904 in Catalina, Spain. He spent the early part of his life with his rich parentÃ¢â¬â¢s and attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. Then, he moved away to Join the Surrealist movement in 1934. He spent most of his live doing this in Madrid, Spain; Paris, France; and New York. The style that he used was surrealism, but he painted his portraits and other paintings realistically. Surrealism is the type of style that is not realistic and expresses the power of imagination. Ã¢â¬Å"The Image VanishesÃ¢â¬ is a painting made by the artist, Salvador Feline Action Dali. I chose Salvador Dali and this painting because of how he paints. He uses the surrealistic style, but his work is realistic. For example, en Ã¢â¬Å"The Image Vanishes,Ã¢â¬ it looks realistic, but it uses a surrealistic concept. In addition, I chose Dali because I like the art of Dali. I like his work and art because of his surrealistic style is unique and creative. Also, I like his art because of his ideas and the significance behind each painting. Today, examples of his art can be found in SST. Petersburg, Florida; Berlin Germany; Paris, France; Catalina, Spawn. How to cite Salvador Dali, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Define the Tax Law for the Residents and Foreign Residents in Australia. Answer: Part 1 Fred, in the given situation will not be taxed in a manner same as the manner in which a resident would be taxed. Individuals in Australia are to be considered as resident for purposes of tax if they are residents of Australia under common law (ordinary meaning test or the common law); or if the domicile is that of Australia, unless to the satisfaction the place of permanent abode is established as not being in Australia (the test of domicile); or if the person is in Australia either intermittently or continuously for more than half of the income year, unless it is to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that it is not in Australia that the usual place of abode is and it is clear that there is no intention of taking up residence here (the 183 days test); or is the Commonwealth superannuation schemes member (Section 6, Australian Income Tax Assessment Act 1936) (Australian income tax assessment act 1936-1974, 1975). The main concept behind this is that the residence of the taxpayer is where the home is of that tax payer (Clinton, 2016). Whether the home of the tax payer is in Australia is a question of fact and if the same is found to be true than there is no requirement of moving any further. In the case of Levene v IRC (Levene v IRC ) Viscount LC defined the term reside a established the meaning as defined under the Oxford English Dictionary meaning the permanent dwelling or for a considerable period of time, to have an individuals usual abode or ones settlement, to live at or in a certain place. The determination of the fact that a man has his usual abode or is settled there is not difficult, and if the same is established he would not become less of a citizen if he has left the country for pleasure or business (Ato.gov.au, 2016). The ATO issued the Taxing Ruling TR 98/17 to interpret the ordinary meaning of a resident (Wills 1997). The relevant factors are identified that whether a person who is entering the country is under the ordinary meaning a resident. The persons behaviors character and quality and the period for which they are present physically are a factor (Ato.gov.au, 2016). The character and quality of a person are indicated through secondary factors. Intention is the first main factor or the persons presences purpose. The ruling differentiates between a persons coming to Australia for employment purposes, travelling and education, albeit while doing work that is casual. The persons location of family is the second factor whether the person maintains outside his place of abode, business ties that he has in Australia and the contract of employments existence, particularly purchase and occupation of a house which may establish his home in the country. The living and social arrangements is the fourth factor which is an indicative of residence which include the childrens education, joining of club, leasing of a house. Any resident under the Taxation Ruling TR 98/17 would be considered to be a resident when he has crossed the stay period of six months and have begun demonstrating behavior which is constant with residence in Australia. Fred will not be thus classified as a resident as the main factor of residence is only not complied with; he has only for setting up his companys branch in the country. Other than this there is no intention of settling in Australia, further within the first year only he has returned back to Australia indicating that no behavior was demonstrated by him maintaining a residence in country. Part 2 California Cooper Syndicate Ltd. v Harris (Survey or of Taxes) (1904) 5 TC 159 This case the main objective of the company was of acquiring of land that contained copper. There however, was no extraction of copper from the land. Subsequently this land was sold by the company to another company and as consideration the company was given the shares of that company (California Cooper Syndicate Ltd. v Harris (Survey or of Taxes), ). It was opined by the court that the revenue generated from the lands sale is in nature income because the companys main purpose behind the land was for making profit by selling the land. Therefore, this would form an incident which is ordinary of the business of taxpayers and the nature of it would be income. Scottish Australian Mining Co. Ltd. FC of T 1950 81 CLR 188 This case the business which was being carried out by the company was that of coal mining on the parcel of land that was owned by it. After the company had extracted the entire coal from the said parcel of land over a period of time, the decision was made by it to sell this piece of land (Scottish Australian Mining Co. Ltd. FC of T, ). To ensure that the land becomes more capable of being sold it was subdivided by the company and there were roads and such other infrastructure which was built on the land. It was opined by the court in this case that the profit which the company had made from the lands sale cannot be assessed since the business of the company was not of selling land and the purpose merely for selling the said piece of land was for realizing its capital asset to the best possible advantage of itself that it could. The nature of the profit was thus in nature capital. FC of T v Whitfords Beach Pty Ltd (1982) 150 CLR This case the company was a taxpayer which had been incorporated mainly for the purpose of acquiring of a parcel of undeveloped land which was located at the Whitfords Beach (FC of T v Whitfords Beach Pty Ltd, ). It was beach frontage access that the land had and a company was formed by a group of people so that they could have over the beach an access to be able to fish there. A few years later due to an offer which had been made to them, the issued share capital of the company, which was a taxpayer, was sold off. The shareholders who had bought the shares from the previous owners so that they are able to get the lands control and that they would be able to subdivide, develop and the sell the sites as residential and make a profit out of it. Eventually when this subdivided land was sold, it was argued by the new shareholders that the profit that was accrued from the sale was not in nature income but the capital asset realization of the company. However, it was opined the High Court that the companys development of the land and the eventual sale business and the profits which were accruing from this sale would be assessed as being ordinary income. It was further stated by the court that when the new shareholders had acquired this company the main intention that they had was they would develop, subdivide and eventually sell the land, thus changing the intention from that of the previous owners which had been for purposes that were non-commercial in nature. Thus the court held that it would be the business ordinary course of activity that the sale of land would fall into and therefore it would be an income which is assessable. Statham Anor. v FC of T 89 ATC 4070 This case a deceased estates trustees were the taxpayers. A parcel of land, which was for farming, had been acquired by this deceased with the intention that the family would be raised and some farm activities would be engaged with (Statham Anor. v FC of T, ). The deceased a few years later sold the half portion of this land to company which was being controlled by the members of the family. Till this time also there was no intention which was there for reselling of the said property and making a profit out of such sale. A partnership was entered into by the new owners to raise on this land, cattle. There was no good performance that the partnership showed and it was eventually decided by the owners that they would subdivide this land and then sell it. During the time of the sale of land which was subdivided the deceased passed away. It was argued by the commissioner that the profit generated from the subdivided lands sale some of the land were income which was assessable of t he estate who had deceased. It was however, argued by the tax payers that the proceeds which were obtained from the sale of the land would not amount to income which was ordinary. The courts opined that the profit that would be generated from the sale of the land would not amount to ordinary income since, the parties activities indicated that the sale of the land was not for the conducting of business or for the generation of profit scheme or undertaking. Further, it was only because the business of farming and the partnership for cattle had failed that the decision had been taken by the owners for selling the land, this does not however, mean that it would automatically lead to the realization of the asset to become taxable. Casimaty v FC of T 97 ATC 5135 This case a farming property had been acquired by the taxpayer from his father and for the next twenty years he carried out on this land the business of primary production (Casimaty v FC of T 97, ) . However, because of the debt that was growing and the poor health, it was decided by the taxpayer subsequently that he would subdivide and sell the lands large portion off. Over a period of 18 years a total of 8 subdivisions were made and roads, sewerage, fences and water facilities were constructed by the tax payer as the subdivisions part. It was contended by the commissioner that the profits which had accrued from the individual blocks sale were in nature ordinary income and thus they would be assessable on the basis that the business of subdivision of land was being carried out by the taxpayer. The court however, on appeal opined that the profits that had accrued from the sale were merely that capital assets realization and there was no business of land subdivision that was bei ng carried out by the taxpayer. Tax payer had acquired the land originally for farming purposes and for using it as a private residency and no evidence was available there that there was a change in this purpose. Mona Sand Pty Ltd. v FC of T 88 ATC 4897 This case the company had acquired a land which was located in Adelaide. A couple of years later a company acquired this land and the intention that had been stated was for the business of selling and/or working of the sand which was there (Mona Sand Pty Ltd. v FC of T, ). After an application was received that the government wished to mine this land that was owned by them. A number of letters were then sent by the taxpayer stating their objection for the same. It was stated by them that the land had been held by them with the aim of subdividing and then selling it. It was later discovered by the taxpayer that the government had rezoned this land as being rural and there was later an intention of the Government for preserving this land was discovered. The Government eventually resumed that said land for a cost of $500,000. The payment of this amount was made in two tranches. It was contended by the Commissioner that this amount was the taxpayers ordinary income, since the tax p ayer had stated its intention of subdividing and selling the property for a profit. It was however argued by the taxpayer that the acquiring of the parcel of land was initially only for selling of sand and later sometime they had thought of subdividing it. Therefore there existed both an intention to be able to derive from the said land income and also to be able to sell this land at a later stage. The court however, opined that the amount which they had was ordinary income, since though it was through a transaction that was isolated that this amount was received, the ultimate intention of the taxpayer for selling this land was still indicated by it. Crow v FC of T 88 ATC 4620 This case there a large amount of money which had been borrowed by a farmer for purchasing five blocks of land over a ten year period. This land was for some time used for the purposes of grazing, farming and for crop cultivation (Crow v FC of T, ). However, eventually there was subdivision of this land. For the starting two years and then over a period of number of year there were 51 blocks which had been sold by the taxpayer eventually and he made a net profit overall of $388,288. It was opined by the Federal Court that, the profit which had been made by the taxpayer was assessable as a business of land development was being carried out by him. The court although, did acknowledge that for a short period of time at the very beginning where the use of the land was as a farm. However, evidence was found considering the amount of debt that had been taken by him that at the outset the taxpayer knew that it would be required to sell some of the land off. There was a systematic and repetitive characteristic of the transactions which were there in the said case with the purchasing of different properties and then subsequently subdividing and selling the parcels of land. There was difference that was made in this case and the Scottish Australian Mining Company case stating that the company had used the property for mining for a substantial period of time unlike this case where the business of farming was continued for only a short period of time. McCurry Anor v FC of T 98 ATC 4487 The taxpayers in this case had purchased a plot of land. There was an old house on this land. This house was removed by the taxpayers and there were three townhouses that were constructed in this place. Even before these townhouses were completed they were advertised for sale. This was however, not a success (McCurry Anor v FC of T, ). The Tax payer and his family moved into two of the townhouses subsequently and lived there for a period of one year approximately, they were sold at this point of time and total net profit which was made was of $150,000 approximately. The taxpayers a few years later then purchased another parcel of land where units were constructed by them and these were then sold. It was contended by the Commissioner that the profits which accrued from the townhouses sale were income that was ordinarily assessable as it was a result of a profit making activity which was commercial in nature. It was argued by the taxpayers that the sale of the land was merely to realize the capital asset and therefore could not be classified as ordinary income since, these townhouses were being used for residential purposes and it was only when there were financial difficulties that it was sold. It was opined by the court that the lands sale was ordinary income because the purpose with which the land had been acquired was commercial and the view behind it was for making profit for selling it. It was not for an investment purpose that the land was purchased and hence cannot be stated to be realization of capital asset. References Ato.gov.au. (2016).Examples of residents and foreign residents | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/Individuals/International-tax-for-individuals/In-detail/Residency/Examples-of-residents-and-foreign-residents/ [Accessed 23 Aug. 2016]. Ato.gov.au. (2016).Residency tests | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/Individuals/International-tax-for-individuals/Work-out-your-tax-residency/Residency-tests/ [Accessed 23 Aug. 2016]. Australian income tax assessment act 1936-1974. (1975). North Ryde, N.S.W.: CCH Australia Ltd. California Cooper Syndicate Ltd. v Harris (Survey or of Taxes)5 TC 159. Casimaty v FC of T 97ATC 5135. Clinton, A. (2016).; Bentley, Duncan; James, Simon --- "The New Zealand Definition of "Residence" for Individuals: Lessons for Australia in a "Global" Environment"  JlATax 1; (2001) 4(1) Journal of Australian Taxation 40. [online] Austlii.edu.au. Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/JlATax/2001/1.html [Accessed 23 Aug. 2016]. Crow v FC of T88 ATC 4620. FC of T v Whitfords Beach Pty Ltd150 CLR. Levene v IRCAC 217. McCurry Anor v FC of T98 ATC 4487. Mona Sand Pty Ltd. v FC of T88 ATC 4897. Scottish Australian Mining Co. Ltd. FC of T81 CLR 188. Statham Anor. v FC of TATC 4070. Wills, M. (1997). The Income Tax Implications of a Foreign Individual Contracting to do Business in Australia, with Particular Reference to the Concepts of 'Residence' and 'Source'.Bond Law Review, 3.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
Eli Pritchard Instructor Sylvia Gray History 106 19 January 2016 The Art of War: Fire and spies Throughout the duration of Sun Tzu's The Art of War we are treated to varied advice on how to conduct war intelligently and cautiously, but nothing encompasses these principles quite like fire and spy's. The tactics used with are almost unlike Sun Tzu rapid (of course with some ground rules), and as he himself put it, "Attack supported fire is indefensible"(Huang 109). Sun Tzu's Fire tactics are lessons in how to employ a dangerous weapon like fire, but at the same time like with any of Sun Tzu's tactics with caution. The second and perhaps cumulative of Sun Tzu's lessons is general is Espionage; in fact war through knowledge is key to the majority of Sun Tzu's Principles. While it is true that Sun Tzu gives specific instructions on how to use certain variables (Like Terrain) knowing beforehand what the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy is what gives way to victory. Spies and Fire are two of the Ideas at the very heart of Sun Tzu's tactics, In other words wars fought with inte lligence and caution. Fire The Tactic of Fire is more or less an instruction set on how to use fire in armed conflicts, and a summary of how caution is important in war. Beyond having the proper conditions for fire (dry climate and high winds) Sun Tzu outlines fire's uses and what to set fire to, moreover specific targets like troops, supplies, vehicles and escape routes. Fire is a tactic unlike any in The Art of War as there is no predefined beneficial ruleset to take into battle, only observation that can be made in battle like not getting burned or not fighting down wind. There is a powerful tool to be found within fire, but Sun Tzu reveals in his conclusion to fire the innate relationship between politics and strategic victory. An Effective political strategy can achieve military victory (and vice versa), More importantly that either type of strategy must be rational in nature to be effective. Fire is powerful but altogether risky tool, and power in Sun Tzu's Art of War does not make for a sound politic al or military victory only caution and rationality. Fire in a modern context One of the best modern examples of the concept of fire and its political interplay is the political/military relationship between air strikes and human shields. While the meaning of air strike is really self-explanatory (a missile strike by air) human shields needs definition, in short it is the tactic of putting civilians on important military targets to prevent air strikes. Human shields have been implemented since the Persian Gulf War in 1991(Tucker 541) and as recently as 2006 by both the IDF and HAMAS in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (Tucker 543). Air Strikes like fire pose a powerful threat to the enemy but when not enacted with caution they are a distinct political and military detriment due to human shields. Likewise human shields are seemingly a modern political counter to air strikes, but overall they pose a distinct political risk to whomever uses them like with Hussein regime in 1990. Saddam Hussein in 1990 moved civilians to key strategic locations in an effort to protect these locations from air strikes (Tucker 542). After the release of several propaganda movies involving the human shields in 1991 Hussein released them due to newfound international pressure (Tucker 542). Like with fire (and human shields) seeking the most powerful political or military strategy leaves the fundamental rationality and caution needed to win wars vacant. Spys "So, as for enlightened lords or distinguished commanders, the reason they can overcome the adversary when action is taken and achieve unparalleled success is prescience"-Espionage, The Art of War Sun Tzu's writing on spies is more or less a summary of how to approach warfare in general, and this approach values knowledge above all other resources. First Sun Tzu Elaborates on the general types of spy's agents, moles, turn coats hidden provocation agents and mobile informants (Huang 113). Then instructions on how to best employ spies in warfare (or the specific type), specifically basic ground rules on what is required of a
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Arab-Israeli conflict essays September 11th was one of the main examples on how foreign policy is always changing and in most moments contradicting. Preceding these attacks, Pakistan had been considered a rogue nation . Yet, after this tragedy, America saw the urgency of which they needed Pakistans alliance in the war on terrorism. Pakistan is bordering Afghanistan, whose government has been blamed for the terrorist attacks. In previous years, as stated before, America had placed Pakistan on the list of rogue nations. The reason for such action was because of its millenarian dictatorship, and its stubbornness in the conflict over Indian- controlled Kashmir. Another reason for such conflict with Pakistan would be the way that the leader of that nation came into power. General Pervez Musharraf came into power through a military coup in October 1999. Soon after these attacks Musharraf had suddenly been in favor of the idea to assist in the war on terrorism. This change had been completely unforeseen due to the fact that Pakistan is a Muslim nation and usually these types of nations defend one another. America realized the geographical importance of its support. Pakistan lies bordering Afghanistan and it would serve as a crucial location from which to attack Afghanistan. In order to soften the Pakistani government to bend for the American government was by donating $1.1 billion to help Pakistan solve the problems it has with debt. Also, all sanctions that had been previously placed on Pakistan were lifted. The Bush administration also made it clear that assistance from the Pakistani government in the war against terrorism was anticipated. In return, The United States expected the Pakistani territory to be accessible to the military. The government also wanted Pakistans Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate to serve as a conn ection to the Taliban and to also provide America with information on the whereabouts of the most wa...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Learning and Assessment - Essay Example Although, the alternative assessment strategies using various technologies was better way to assess a student than the traditional one, yet using both types of assessments in triangulation was the most appropriate approach. Before discussing that which method was better, one must keep in mind what is assessment and what are its essentials In literal terms, the word assessment means to determine the real worth of something. In the educational setting, it refers to the evaluation done by the teacher to find the extent to which the student had been able to learn something. A good assessment should be complex enough to involve the students in real thinking process, open enough to appreciate diverse opinions but at the same time, it should also be constraint enough to enable a fair scoring system. Initially, the only method for the assessment, used by the teachers, was the traditional one. This means that a written test used to be taken, having questions and answers, preferably in the form of Multiple Choice Questions. This tradition was followed for centuries. Even today, this traditional methodology of assessment is being used in most of developing countries till matriculation level, atleast. On one hand, this approach was easy to conduct and scoring could be done more objectively but this traditional approach led to several problems too. The first problem was the misrepresentation of learning... The goal of assessment is to check for the level to which the student had learnt. But a written test was just a sampling of those learning outcome, only on the basis of that 'sample', it would not be appropriate to grade the student. Another problem with written test is that, ideally the evaluation should be a continuous process. However, the written test used to be the evaluation only at certain point of time. There is a possibility that the student would not have been feeling well at that time and thus could not attempt the paper well, in such cases; such assessment strategy fails to portray the true picture. THE ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES - Advantages and Drawbacks: On the contrary to the real purpose of assessment, a written test could provide the true picture only if the writing skills of the students permitted so, thus it became primarily the test of writing skill before being the test of original stuff. Suppose there was the written test of science, it should test whether the student has grasped the particular concept or not (Shepardson 2001), but two students delivering the same content, but one had better abilities to express himself, he was likely to get more marks than the other. However, the alternative assessment strategies used various technologies to remove the loopholes of the traditional system. The alternative assessment strategies were based on the ideas that the assessment should be able to involve the student to involve in thinking process that is supposed to be invoked in him, because of the learning that he had gained. Furthermore, it was not dependent totally on the writing skills of the students. Above all, it was capable of accepting the diverse ideas and responses. However, one major challenge